Category Archives: Science of Hemp

Making Pain More Bearable

hem-pain-shoulder
Cannabis Does Not Reduce Pain, It Makes It More Bearable
Last updated on Tuesday 18 June 2013
Originally published on Monday 24 December 2012

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com

Cannabis Does Not Reduce Pain, It Makes It More Bearable

Using cannabis for pain relief does help, however, it makes pain more bearable rather than getting rid of it, researchers from Oxford University’s Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB) reported in the journal Pain.

The authors added that people in pain act differently to cannabis, according to their brain imaging study.thc-structure

The principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis is called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The researchers found that when volunteers took oral tablets of THC, they tended to find the experience of pain more tolerable. There was no evidence that THC reduced pain intensity.

Several studies have found that cannabis is associated with some kind of improvement in pain symptoms. Researchers from McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) and McGill University reported in CMAJ in 2010 that patients with chronic neuropathic pain experienced pain relief, improved mood and better quality sleep after smoking cannabis.

Scientists from Imperial College London found that Cannador, another cannabis plant extract, effectively relives pain after major surgery. They reported their findings in the journal Anerthesiology.

Researchers from the Mayo Clinic, however, said medical marijuana is not recommended for teenagers with chronic pain.

Cannabis_sativa2
THC is one of 400 compounds found in the Cannabis plant

According to MRI brain imaging scans in this latest study, areas of the brain that interpret pain were not affected significantly when people took THC. It appears that cannabis affects people’s emotional state in a way that makes pain less awful.

Lead researcher, Dr Michael Lee, said:

“We have revealed new information about the neural basis of cannabis-induced pain relief. Cannabis does not seem to act like a conventional pain medicine. Some people respond really well, others not at all, or even poorly. Brain imaging shows little reduction in the brain regions that code for the sensation of pain, which is what we tend to see with drugs like opiates. Instead cannabis appears to mainly affect the emotional reaction to pain in a highly variable way.”
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Health care professionals and administrators say that chronic (long-term) pain is a complex healthcare problem. In order to help patients effectively manage their pain, different approaches are needed, which can include physical therapy, psychological support, and medications.

For a number of patients who have not responded adequately to drugs, cannabis or cannabis-based medications are an effective way of controlling their pain. Many, however, report no benefits from cannabis and some undesirable side effects.

Dr. Lee said “We know little about cannabis and what aspects of pain it affects, or which people might see benefits over the side-effects or potential harms in the long term. We carried out this study to try and get at what is happening when someone experiences pain relief using cannabis.

Our small-scale study, in a controlled setting, involved 12 healthy men and only one of many compounds that can be derived from cannabis. That’s quite different from doing a study with patients. My view is the findings are of interest scientifically but it remains to see how they impact the debate about use of cannabis-based medicines. Understanding cannabis’ effects on clinical outcomes, or the quality of life of those suffering chronic pain, would need research in patients over long time periods.”

Dr. Lee and team carried out several MRI scans on 12 participants at the FMRIB center in Oxford, England.

The volunteers were divided into two groups:
• The THC group – participants were given a 15 mg THC tablet. THC is one of 400 different compounds found in the cannabis plant. It is the one that gives recreational smokers the “high”.
• The placebo group – the participants were given a dummy drug that looked just like the tablet those in the other group were taking
Then the groups were swapped, so that each participant eventually had been tested with THC and placebo.chillies
The volunteers had either 1% capsaicin cream rubbed on the skin of one leg, or a dummy cream. Capsaicin is the ingredient of chillies; when rubbed on skin it causes a burning, painful sensation. Then the ones who received the dummy cream received the 1% capsaicin cream and those that had received the pain-inducing cream received the dummy cream.

In all, each participant underwent four situations:
• They took a THC tablet and had the pain-inducing cream applied to their skin.
• They took a THC tablet and had the dummy cream applied to their skin.
• They took a placebo tablet and had the pain-inducing cream applied to their skin
• They took a placebo tablet and had the dummy cream applied to their skin
In each different situation they had an MRI scan – a total of four scans per participants.

They were asked to describe the intensity and unpleasantness of their pain in each situation. The volunteers had to describe how intense the burning sensation was, and how much of a bother the pain was.

They found that with THC, many of the volunteers said the pain bothered them less, but did not report any change in the burning sensation.

Even though their findings showed that THC’s average effect was statistically significant, people’s reaction to pain after taking the compound varied considerably. Half of them reported a “clear change in how much the pain bothered them.”
Brain MRI
The participants’ reports regarding how unpleasant their pain was were backed up by MRI scan results. An area in the bran called the anterior mid-cingulate cortex, which has many functions, including the emotional aspects of pain, became less active after participants took THC.

The scans also showed that activity changed in the right amygdala, which correlated with the reduction in the unpleasantness of the pain after people had taken THC. Experts already know that pain can “prime” the right side of the amygdala.

The scientists were particularly interested in how closely the right amygdala and the primary sensorimotor area (a part of the cortex) were connected. The strength of the connection between these two brain areas correlated well with the THC’s varying effects on the pain the participants had reported.

The scans may help doctors predict who may benefit from taking cannabis for the relief of pain, the authors wrote.

Dr. Lee said:

“We may in future be able to predict who will respond to cannabis, but we would need to do studies in patients with chronic pain over longer time periods.”

Written by Christian Nordqvist
Copyright: Medical News Today

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com

Pain Management

Hand joints - Arthritis

Medical Marijuana for Arthritis Treatment and Arthritis Pain

Medical marijuana contains powerful anti-inflammatory compounds as well as natural analgesics, providing a one-two punch that makes medicinal marijuana an excellent part of an arthritis treatment plan. Medical marijuana can relieve joint pain while at the same time reducing the inflammation that precipitated that pain. Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and even juvenile arthritis may be treated with the help of cannabinoids naturally occurring in marijuana.

Medical Marijuana is an Effective Treatment for Arthritis Pain and Inflammation
shoulder pain

27 million Americans have osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis. This condition, also known as degenerative joint disease, causes breakdown of joint cartilage resulting in pain and inflammation where bare joints rub together. A further 1.3 million Americans are living with rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune condition that causes severe pain. In addition, 300,000 children in America have juvenile arthritis. While most doctors do not recommend use of medical marijuana for young children, adults and older teens can treat their arthritis with medicinal marijuana.

In a 2005 study, THC and cannabidiol were found to produce notable improvements in pain, quality of sleep, and to reduce disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Both these compounds are among the cannabinoids naturally occurring in medical marijuana. In 2000, researchers found that cannabidiol “effectively blocked progression of arthritis” in animal trials.

Although both these studies involve cannabinoids administered as drugs isolated from marijuana, medicinal use of cannabis by smoking, vaporizing, or eating, may be a better delivery method for the same potent analgesics and anti-inflammatories. When smoked, medical marijuana enters the smoker’s blood stream immediately and is distributed evenly. In addition, smoking medical marijuana provides the body with all the cannabinoids present in marijuana, not one or two isolated components. Thirdly, in some states patients can legally cultivate marijuana plants, but the average patient cannot extract cannabinoids from marijuana, meaning patients who choose drugs that isolate particular cannabinoids must remain dependent on the pharmaceutical industry for their medicine.

Choosing Medical Marijuana to Treat Your Arthritis and Pain

shoulder-pain

Before trying medical marijuana for your arthritis treatment, make sure medical marijuana is legal in your state, city, and county. If medicinal marijuana remains illegal in your area, consider getting involved in local efforts to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes. If it is legal, talk to your doctor about writing a recommendation for medical marijuana. Some doctors have limited experience with medical marijuana and may recommend you see a medical marijuana specialist.

Once you have a recommendation in hand, you will need to acquire your medicine. You’ll need to either hire a medical marijuana caregiver or locate a medical marijuana dispensary in your area. Both options are not available in all areas, even where medical marijuana is legal. You may not have the option to use a dispensary or your medical marijuana caregiver may be forced to serve only a limited number of patients. Again, know your laws!

medical-fda

Federal Drug Admin.

Disclaimer:This text is for informative purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for medical advice from a physician. Always consult your doctor before making any decision on the treatment of a medical condition.

Arthritis Today-Medical Marijuana

For a list of Medical Marijuana Clinics in the United States

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Glaucoma

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Glaucoma Research Foundation

glaucoma-eye

Advocates of medicinal marijuana cite evidence that hemp products can lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in people with glaucoma. However, these products are less effective than medicines prescribed by an eye doctor.

The high dose of marijuana necessary to produce a clinically relevant effect on IOP in the short term requires constant inhalation, as much as every three hours.

The number of significant side effects generated by long-term oral use of marijuana or long-term inhalation of marijuana smoke make marijuana a poor choice in the treatment of glaucoma, a chronic disease requiring proven and effective treatment.
Currently, marijuana is designated as a Schedule I drug (drugs which have a high potential for abuse and no medical application or proven therapeutic value).

The only marijuana currently approved at the Federal level for medical use is Marinol, a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most active component of marijuana. It was developed as an antiemetic (an agent that reduces nausea used in chemotherapy treatments), which can be taken orally in capsule form. The effects of Marinol on glaucoma are not impressive.
Medical Research Studies

To date, no studies have shown that marijuana— or any of its approximately 400 chemical components—can safely and effectively lower intraocular pressure better than the variety of drugs currently on the market.

Currently, there are no National Eye Institute studies in the United States concerning the use of marijuana to treat glaucoma.
The Glaucoma Research Foundation will continue to monitor the research community for any new and well-designed studies regarding the use of marijuana to effectively treat glaucoma.

www.Glaucoma.org

Disclaimer:This text is for informative purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for medical advice from a physician. Always consult your doctor before making any decision on the treatment of a medical condition.

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Medical Wiki

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Cannabis indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate,
Cannabis_sativa
Cannabis , Köhler’s book of medicinal plants from 1897
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Modern Medical
Marijuana Dispensary medical-usemedical-fda

Medical cannabis has several potential beneficial effects. Cannabinoids can serve as appetite stimulants, antiemetics, antispasmodics, and have some analgesic effects, may be helpful treating chronic non-cancerous pain, or vomiting and nausea caused by chemotherapy. The drug may also aid in treating symptoms of AIDS patients.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved smoked cannabis for any condition or disease as it deems evidence is lacking concerning safety and efficacy of cannabis for medical use.The FDA issued an 2006 advisory against smoked medical cannabis stating; “marijuana has a high potential for abuse, has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and has a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision.”

The National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA states that “Marijuana itself is an unlikely medication candidate for several reasons: (1) it is an unpurified plant containing numerous chemicals with unknown health effects; (2) it is typically consumed by smoking further contributing to potential adverse effects; and (3) its cognitive impairing effects may limit its utility”

The Institute of Medicine, run by the United States National Academy of Sciences, conducted a comprehensive study in 1999  assessing the potential health benefits of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids. The study concluded that smoking cannabis is not to be recommended for the treatment of any disease condition, but that nausea, appetite loss, pain and anxiety can all be mitigated by cannabis.

While the study expressed reservations about smoked cannabis due to the health risks associated with smoking, the study team concluded that until another mode of ingestion was perfected providing the same relief as smoked cannabis, there was no alternative. In addition, the study pointed out the inherent difficulty in marketing a non-patentable herb, as pharmaceutical companies will likely make smaller investments in product development if the result is not patentable.

The Institute of Medicine stated that there is little future in smoked cannabis as a medically approved medication, while in the report also concluding that for certain patients, such as the terminally ill or those with debilitating symptoms, the long-term risks are not of great concern. Citing “the dangers of cannabis and the lack of clinical research supporting its medicinal value” the American Society of Addiction Medicine in March 2011 issued a white paper recommending a halt on use of marijuana as medication in the U.S., even in states where it had been declared legal.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_cannabis

Glaucoma
Arthritis

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Colorado Department of Agriculture

State Colorado Seal
“Rules Pertaining to the Administration and Enforcement of the Industrial Hemp Regulatory Program Act”

colorado-dept agriculture
Industrial Hemp

“Importation of viable industrial hemp seed across State lines and Country boundaries is illegal under the Federal Controlled Substances Act.”

Industrial Hemp Regulatory Program Act:
Rules Pertaining to the Administration and Enforcement of Industrial Hemp Regulatory Program Act – 8 CCR 1203-23

2/4/2014

The Colorado Department of Agriculture’s regulatory role with Industrial Hemp is limited to registration of growers and inspection of crop. The State of Colorado has no jurisdiction over many other factors that producers are faced with. While Colorado legalized the production of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis spp), growing it is still considered illegal by the Federal Law. The following issues may cause concern for those interested in growing this crop in Colorado.

  • Seed Procurement/Seed Quality - Seed that exists in Colorado may be variable and have unknown THC levels.  Random sampling of hemp fields will be conducted. Plant samples testing at levels higher than 0.3% THC will be in violation of the Colorado Industrial Hemp Registration and Production Act.  Importation of viable industrial hemp seed across State lines and Country boundaries is illegal under the Federal Controlled Substances Act.
  • Pesticides - There are not any pesticides (herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, etc.) currently registered for use on Cannabis spp. (Industrial Hemp and marijuana) due to the predominant federal nature of pesticide regulation. The CDA is putting together a list of pesticides that could be used on Cannabis spp. and not constitute a violation of pesticide labeling or other federal and state pesticide laws and regulations.  This list will be extremely limited.
  • Federal farm programs such as crop insurance, farm loans and conservation reserve may be jeopardized if industrial hemp is planted; these programs are managed by USDA a Federal Agency.  Contact a lawyer for legal advice.
  • Banking – banks including state-chartered banks may be reluctant to provide services to Cannabis growers for fear of being prosecuted for federal laws and regulations violations.
  • Processing - Industrial hemp must be processed prior to shipment out of Colorado. Colorado’s industrial hemp rules state that industrial hemp producers must provide documentation of in state processing as part of registration. It is unknown at this time how many processing facilities will be available in Colorado at time of harvest.

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Quick Facts
10/9/2013
  • Amendment 64 to the Colorado Constitution directed the General Assembly to enact legislation governing the cultivation, processing, and sale of industrial hemp.  Legislation adopted in 2013 delegated the responsibility for establishing registration and inspection regulations to the Colorado Department of Agriculture.
  • The new rules, to be published as 8 CCR 1203-23, will sets forth the requirements of registration and inspection. These rules will be adopted and effective by early 2014.  The registration deadline is May 1 of each year, beginning in 2014.
  • Industrial Hemp means a plant of the genus Cannabis and any part of the plant, whether growing or not, containing a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration of no more than three-tenths of one percent (0.3%) on a dry weight basis.
  • Two types of registration will be allowed:  Research and Development (R & D) and Commercial.
    • R & D is limited to 10 acres or less and will be charged a registration fee of $100 plus $5/acre.
    • Commercial registrants are not limited in size of acreage and will be charged a registration fee of $200 plus $1.00/acre.
  • When registering, applicants must provide:
    • contact information
    • maps that include GPS locations of all growing locations and varieties planted
    • affidavits or lab tests showing that the crop planted will produce a THC content of 0.3% or less
  • CDA will select at least one third of registrants each year for field sampling and verification of 0.3% or less THC content
  • Costs of field sampling and lab testing incurred by the Department will be passed on to the registrant.
    • Fees for field sampling are currently $35/hour and will include drive time, sampling time and any per diem or room charges incurred by the Department’s representative(s).

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David Bronner – Long Time Advocate and Hempreneur

David Bronner

David Bronner

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Dr. Bronner’s

D.C.’s Pot Legalization Initiative Gets Some Unexpected Star Power
This long-haired soap tycoon has attracted a cult following for his inventively packaged hemp soap and history of strange political actions.

David Bronner is president of Dr. Bronner’s magic soaps and a quasi-cult hero.

By Lucia Graves – Huffington Post

District of Columbia residents might know David Bronner, the California-based owner of Dr. Bronner’s Magic Soaps, as the guy who camped out in front of the White House in a steel cage until authorities came and forcibly removed him with a power saw. At the time he was protesting U.S. hemp policy. Now the owner of a top-selling natural-soap chain has turned his sights to other perceived Washington wrongs.

In 2013 he donated $100,000 to successful legalization initiatives in Colorado and Washington; this year Bronner put $20,000 into an initiative to make it legal for District residents to possess up to 2 ounces of marijuana, to sell an ounce at a time, and to grow three plants in their homes. (The lead proponent of the initiative, Adam Eidenger, is Bronner’s D.C. media director.)

It’s a substantial amount of money for an initiative, first filed with the D.C. Board of Elections in January, that has so far raised just $28,000. But more important than the financial support is the celebrity of this pony-tailed marijuana activist whose rainbow Mercedes runs on french-fry grease.

Bronner, the grandson of company founder Emanuel Bronner, has managed to turn the quirky soap company, which sells tingly, liquid hemp soap in weirdly wordy labels, into a robust business with sales in the tens of millions.

The man is a master of marketing absurdity, so perhaps it makes sense that in an age when other hippie products like Burt’s Bees and Tom’s of Maine have been bought up by larger consumer-goods companies, Bronner has pursued a radical political agenda seemingly at odds with running a large business. Beyond legalization efforts, Bronner’s political agenda includes protesting policies that fail to differentiate between oilseed and fiber varieties of cannabis, and he’s fighting the rise of genetically modified foods.

It’s not your typical business move, but people love him for it. “As a resident, I’m truly thankful for the rare business leader like David who not only talks the talk about giving back to communities but who so clearly and consistently walks the walk,” said Tom Angell, chairman of pro-legalization group Marijuana Majority. “We need more like him.”

The measure, which would require the signatures of 23,000 D.C. residents to make it on the ballot in November, comes as District council members are preparing to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana. Under the decriminalization bill, possession of an ounce or less would be punishable only with a $25 fine. The council backed the bill in a preliminary vote this week, and the measure is expected to be signed into law by Mayor Vincent Gray.

Huffington Post

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Legislation Matters

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Legal hemp cultivation step closer as farm bill heads for passage
February 3, 2014, 5:37 PM

Universities and agriculture agencies in nine states are closer to being allowed to grow hemp for research purposes, thanks to the sprawling farm bill soon to be approved by Congress.
Cultivating hemp — a cousin of marijuana that is used to make rope, clothing, lotions and other products – is now effectively prohibited by federal law.

Nine states including Kentucky and Vermont have passed laws legalizing industrial farming of hemp. The bill would allow research on and growing of the crop without the threat of penalties from the federal government.

The House passed the farm bill Jan. 29, and the Senate is expected to follow suit on Tuesday.

Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell was a strong backer of the hemp legislation, saying it could help boost the economy in his home state of Kentucky.

The pending approval of the bill sent shares of Hemp Inc. Hemp, an over-the-counter industrial-hemp penny stock, soaring 83% on Tuesday.

– Robert Schroeder
www.marketwatch.com/Capitol Report

The Organic Alternative

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The Benefits of Organic Hemp Milk

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Though its name might be a bit misleading, organic hemp milk is a perfectly legal, not to mention healthy, alternative for vegetarians or non vegetarians. Produced from the seeds of the hemp plant, this milk has only begun to be sold in the United States within the past few years.

One concern that people have about organic hemp milk is that it might contain some of the chemical THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), which is found in marijuana. Rest assured that this ingredient is not present or associated with hemp milk.
Another concern is that the hemp seeds must be imported since it’s currently not legal to grow the hemp plant in the US. Some hemp milk producers have to rely on obtaining hemp seeds from farmers in Canada or Europe, where the growth of hemp plants for oil or milk is perfectly legal.
One 8-Ounce glass contains the following healthy nutrients:

•    900mg Omega-3 Fatty Acid
•    2800mg Omega-6 Fatty Acid
•    All 10 Essential Amino Acids
•    4 grams of Digestible Protein
•    46% of RDA of Calcium
•    0% Cholesterol
•    Potassium
•    Phosphorous
•    Riboflavin
•    Vitamin A
•    Vitamin E
•    Vitamin B12
•    Folic Acid
•    Vitamin D
•    Magnesium
•    Iron
•    Zinc
•    And more…
dr_group
Dr. Edward F. Group III, DC, ND, DACBN, DCBCN, DABFM
globalhealingcenter
Dr. Edward F. Group III founded Global Healing Center in 1998 and currently serves as Chief Executive Officer.
At the forefront of the research and development team, Dr. Group assumes a hands-on approach to producing new and advanced degenerative disease products and information.

“We want to help our clients and customers help themselves and realize their body has self-healing mechanisms. We are here to educate and provide the tools necessary to live a long, healthy, happy life.”   Dr. Edward F. Group III